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Overview The Human Side of Outsourcing considers outsourcing from both management and staff perspectives. About the Author Stephanie J.
The Processes of Organization and Management
Table of Contents List of Figures and Tables. List of Contributors. Part I Outsourcing in Practice. Part II Theory and Evidence. Show More. Average Review. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 6 2 , Kern, T. Human Resources in the 21st Century.
Hobeken: John Wiley and Sons. LaCity, M.
Martin G. Orlikowski, W. Brief Eds. Oshima, M.
The Processes of Organization and Management
Kao, T. Prahalad C. Payne, S. Potosky, D. Stanton, J. Human Resource Management, vol. Stone, D. Stroh L. Schlosser, F.
Smith, P. C, Vozikis, G. Tansley, C.
How human resource outsourcing affects organizational learning in the knowledge economy
Personnel Review 30 3 , — Thite M. In: M. Kavanagh and M. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Townsend, A.
Tremblay M. International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. Given this framework it is easy to understand how OD practitioners can use many different types of diagnostic tools and interventions to produce helpful insights and feedback. Many of these methods are also used by other types of social scientists and practitioners. The key difference when using these methodologies in an OD context is that the interpretation of the results and the determination of the intervention required is a shared process between practitioner and client, and the emphasis is on organizational improvement.
Regardless of the methodology, the basic notion of using data-based feedback to move clients from their comfort zone and create a need for change is common to most OD efforts. The second major assumption inherent in the definition of OD is that the field is firmly grounded in social systems theory. From this perspective, each organization is conceptualized as a system of interdependent subsystems and components e.
This means that OD interventions are designed and implemented with a thorough understanding of the interplay between different factors in the organization that can either help or hinder the success of the change effort. Although there are a number of different OD models reflecting systems theory, the Burke-Litwin model of organizational performance and change is one of the more comprehensive. Reflecting a systems thinking perspective, it outlines 12 distinct factors of organizations that need to be considered when designing and implementing any large-scale change effort.
These factors reflect both transformational and transactional areas. Transformational factors are those that are likely to be influenced by the external environment. When these factors are the focus of an OD-related change effort, new thinking and behaviors are typically required on the part of the individuals in that social system. These factors include the external environment, the mission and strategy of the organization, the senior leadership and what they represent, and the nature of the organizational culture. Changes in these factors or a lack of alignment and integration among any of these during a change effort tend to be more strategic and long term in nature and eventually create a ripple effect that drives change in other parts of the organization.
Transactional factors, in comparison, are those that are more day-to-day and short-term focused. These include elements such as the behaviors of middle management, the formal structure reflecting how managers and employees are organized, the systems and processes that reinforce the right types of behaviors e.
All these factors and their interaction with one another ultimately influence both individual and organizational performance. As with most systems models, performance also has a subsequent impact on the external environment of that organization e. In other words the systems approach to OD work reflects a constant feedback loop.
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It also reflects a broader perspective for facilitating organizational change than many management consulting approaches, such as those of firms that focus only on structure or technology. This means that the field and practice of OD is values-based in nature. Organizational development practitioners evaluate their efforts, including the choices of the clients they work with and the interventions they engage in, against a normative filter.
In short, they ask this question of themselves: Will this effort result in a positive outcome for the organization and its employees? Unlike some types of organizational consulting approaches that can be financially driven or very senior management focused, such as downsizing efforts or mergers and acquisitions, OD practitioners are particularly focused on the human relations component of their work.
This means that for many, if the nature of the project will result in negative outcomes for a given set of employees, the OD practitioner is likely to turn down the project. Although counterintuitive from a business model perspective, this is one of the hallmarks of the OD profession and one of the key reasons why OD work is appealing to some people. This emphasis on positivistic change is evident in areas such as the International OD Code of Ethics, sponsored by the Organization Development Institute, as well as described in many articles and books in the field.