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US: Halliburton Unit Risked Civilian Lives, Lawsuits Say (Update3)
Volume Article Contents. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Daniel Meek. Paul Cawkill. Norman Jones. Neil Greenberg. Simon Wessely. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Background: Modern military operations have incorporated deployed civilians in a variety of roles e.
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Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. The health of UK military personnel who deployed to the Iraq war: a cohort study. Search ADS. What are the consequences of deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan on the mental health of the UK armed forces? A cohort study. Coping with the impact of working in a conflict zone: a comparative study of diplomatic staff.
The threat of war and psychological distress among civilians working in Iraq and Afghanistan. Surveys Office for Population Censuses. Standard Occupational Classification, vol. Office for Population Censuses and Surveys.
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A method of assigning socio-economic status classification to British Armed Forces personnel. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorders among Armed Forces personnel. Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. Google Preview. Self-reported risk-taking behaviours and hospitalization for motor vehicle injury among active duty army personnel. Risky driving among regular armed forces personnel from the United Kingdom. Psychometric and clinical-tests of validity in measuring physical and mental-health constructs.
Conceptual-framework and item selection. Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam nurse veterans who witnessed injury or death. Do medical services personnel who deployed to the Iraq war have worse mental health than other deployed personnel?
Oversight, Accountability Needed for Contractors in War Zones
The experiences of security industry contractors working in Iraq: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Explanations for the increase in mental health problems in UK reserve forces who have served in Iraq. Reserves in the Future Force. All rights reserved. Issue Section:.
- Use of Contractors Added to War’s Chaos in Iraq;
- Who are the private contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan?;
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UK civilians had better overall health and were less likely to report multiple physical symptoms compared with reservists adjusted ORs 0. Conclusions: Overall, the psychological health of deployed civilians appears to be better than that of Army personnel deployed in non-combat roles. Civilians are also less likely to engage in some risky behaviours.
The UK Ministry of Defence MoD deploys civilian personnel in direct support of overseas military operations, in roles such as technicians, scientists, media and political advisors. It is well known that such experiences can cause psychological health problems in military personnel. War journalists have been found to have higher rates of alcohol misuse, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , major depressive disorder and stress than non-war journalists.
For deployed US civilians, there appears to be a significant association between deployment and poorer psychological health; for deployed UK civilians however, there is a paucity of data. To investigate the psychological effect of deployment, data were collected from UK civilians deployed to Iraq in tandem with a larger survey of the health and well-being of UK military personnel. A shorter non-military version of the questionnaire was mailed to MoD civilians who deployed to Iraq between January and July The list of deployed civilians was generated by the MoD and made available to the research team.
Occupational social class was assigned to civilians based on their reported occupation on deployment using the Standard Occupational Classification. Questions on seatbelt usage and speeding were adapted from the study by Bell et al. The item General Health Questionnaire GHQ was used to measure symptoms of common mental disorder over the past month. A cut off of 18 or more symptoms represented caseness of multiple physical symptoms.
Surge of DOD civilian employees is needed in Afghanistan, Mattis says - News - Stripes
To maximize response rate, surveys were mailed out at least 3 times. Only Army personnel who served in wholly non-combat roles [termed combat service support CSS ] were included for comparison, as CSS roles more closely reflect the roles undertaken by MoD civilians. Army personnel deployed in these roles have responsibilities for general support of operations, with a primarily logistical or combat enabling function e.
We also excluded medical personnel from the current study as these individuals experience increased exposure to the injury or deaths of others.
Surge of DOD civilian employees is needed in Afghanistan, Mattis says
Test statistics were generated to examine socio-demographic differences t -tests were used for continuous and chi 2 -tests for categorical data. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the demographic and in-theatre characteristics, health behaviours and health outcomes of deployed MoD civilians and Army CSS personnel. Odds ratios were not generated for comparison of deployment likelihood of civilian vs. Compared with regular Army CSS personnel, civilians were older, more likely to be female, to have attained higher educational qualifications and to be of a higher social class table 1.
Similar differences were observed between civilians and Army CSS reserve personnel. The roles MoD civilians had while deployed were primarily fire fighters, police officers, administrators, researchers and policy advisors data not shown. Of the MoD civilians, About The prevalence of all health outcomes and risky behaviours were lower among MOD civilians than both Army regulars and reservists table 3. Once socio-demographic differences were accounted for, only smoking remained statistically significantly lower among civilians compared with regulars adjusted OR 0.
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Civilians reported fewer multiple physical symptoms compared with regulars adjusted ORs 0. Adjustment for traumatic experiences had no notable effect on the results data available from authors. The main finding in this study is that for mental health outcomes there was no statistically significant difference between deployed MoD civilians and their armed forces counterparts.
MoD civilians were also less likely to be smokers than their regulars colleagues. MoD deployed civilians also reported differences in deployment experiences compared with their Army colleagues regular and reserve , perceiving significantly higher levels of indirect fire and less hostility from local civilians. Feinstein and colleagues work has demonstrated that war journalists have higher rates of psychiatric difficulties and are less likely to receive treatment than non-war journalists.
Rates of psychopathology among contractors appear to vary but generally they have been shown to have similar if not worse mental health outcomes than those in the military. A different study in found that In a study on private contractors conducted by the RAND corporation Research and Development, a non-profit think tank that undertakes research on US armed forces While there was no significant difference between civilians and military personal reporting they thought they were going to die, MoD civilians were more likely to report coming under indirect fire than their Armed Forces colleagues.
It is, however, unlikely that civilians experienced more indirect fire than their Army colleagues. This result is likely to due to recall bias as civilians who are unfamiliar with deployment and combat are more likely to report exposure and less likely to be able to make an objective assessment of danger than their regular and reserve colleagues. Research shows that reservists who deployed on TELIC operations reported more ill-health than their regular counterparts.
At the time of this study civilians were not offered decompression but this has subsequently been implemented. Data from civilians were collected concurrently with the military data collection. Use of similar questionnaire measures allowed direct comparisons to be made. The small number of civilians studied meant that some comparisons performed may be inadequately powered to detect significant differences. Molnar calls the C a "promise keeper," saying it keeps America's promise to care for sick and wounded soldiers, airmen and marines.