Capacity for Development: New Solutions to Old Problems

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Market Edge: Why tax reform is a balancing act for Duterte government

Employers are required to begin using the new wage withholding tables by February 15, You can view the new wage withholding tables here. You can read the Notice here.

World Economic Situation And Prospects: October 2018 Briefing, No. 119

Among the many changes to the U. The increased exemption amounts, however, are scheduled to expire on December 31, On December 15, the Conference Committee reconciling the House and Senate tax reform bills released its full bill text to be voted on by both chambers of Congress and, if approved, presented to the President. The compensation provisions in the final bill are substantially the same as those in the Senate bill.

The impacts of the conventional transition strategies proved to be de-stabilizing in the short-term and left the population impoverished in the long-term. Economic output declined much more than expected. The decline in output lasted until for all transition economies. By , economic output had declined across all transition economies by 41 percent compared to its level. The Central and Eastern European economies began growing again around , with Poland, which had begun its transition programme earliest emerging from recession in The Baltic States came out of recession in and the rest of the former Soviet Union around Inflation remained above 20 percent a year except in the Czech Republic and Hungary until the mids.

Transition to Market : Studies in Fiscal Reform

Across all transition economies the peak annual inflation rate was percent percent in the CIS. Labour force surveys undertaken by the International Labour Organization showed significantly higher rates of joblessness and there was considerable internal migration. In time domestic producers were able to upgrade their production capacity and foreign direct investment was attracted to the transition economies.

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Local-manufactured higher quality consumer goods became available and won market share back from imports. Stabilization of the exchange rate was made more difficult by large-scale capital flight, with domestic agents sending part of their earning abroad to destinations where they believed their capital was more secure.

The promise of European Union membership and the adoption of the EU's legislation and regulations the Community acquis or acquis communautaire helped secure trust in property rights and economic and governmental institutions in much of Central and Eastern Europe. Some economists have argued that the growth performance of the transition economies stemmed from the low level of development, decades of trade isolation and distortions in the socialist planned economies.

They have emphasized that the transition strategies adopted reflected the need to resolve the economic crisis besetting the socialist planned economies and the overriding objective was the transformation to capitalist market economies rather than the fostering of economic growth and welfare.

But by , the EBRD was reporting that the effects of the initial starting point in each transition economy on the reform process had faded. Although the foundations had been laid for a functioning market economy through sustained liberalization, comprehensive privatization, openness to international trade and investment, and the establishment of democratic political systems there remained institutional challenges.

Liberalized markets were not necessarily competitive and political freedom had not prevented powerful private interests from exercising undue influence. Ten years on, in the Transition Report for , the EBRD was still finding that the quality of market-enabling institutions continued to fall short of what was necessary for well-functioning market economies. Growth in the transition economies had been driven by trade integration into the world economy with "impressive" export performance, and by "rapid capital inflows and a credit boom".

But such growth had proved volatile and the EBRD considered that governments in the transition economies should foster the development of domestic capital markets and improve the business environment, including financial institutions, real estate markets and the energy, transport and communications infrastructure. The EBRD expressed concerns about regulatory independence and enforcement, price setting, and the market power of incumbent infrastructure operators.

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  5. Income inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient rose significantly in the transition economies between and and the mids. Poverty re-emerged with between 20 and 50 percent of people living below the national poverty line in the transition economies. The UN Development Programme calculated that overall poverty in Eastern Europe and the CIS increased from 4 percent of the population in to 32 percent by , or from 14 million people to million.

    Fiscal Reform Over Ten Years of Transition - Persée

    By , the year before the global financial crisis hit, the index for GDP had reached compared to in for the transition economies. In other words, it took nearly 20 years to restore the level of output that had existed prior to the transition. The global recession of and the Eurozone crisis of destabilized the transition economies, reduced growth rates and increased unemployment. The slowdown hit government revenues and widened fiscal deficits but almost all transition economies had experienced a partial recovery and had maintained low and stable inflation since Transition trajectories have varied considerably in practice.

    Some nations have been experimenting with market reform for several decades, while others are relatively recent adopters e. In some cases reforms have been accompanied with political upheaval, such as the overthrow of a dictator Romania , the collapse of a government the Soviet Union , a declaration of independence Croatia , or integration with another country East Germany.

    In other cases economic reforms have been adopted by incumbent governments with little interest in political change China , Laos , Vietnam. Some countries, such as Vietnam, have experienced macro-economic upheavals over different periods of transition, even transition turmoil. According to the World Bank's 10 Years of Transition report " Vito Tanzi, Director of the IMF's Fiscal Affairs Department, gave definition that the transformation to a market economy is not complete until functioning fiscal institutions and reasonable and affordable expenditure programs, including basic social safety nets for the unemployed, the sick, and the elderly, are in place.

    Mr Tanzi stated that these spending programs must be financed from public revenues generated—through taxation—without imposing excessive burdens on the private sector. According to the EBRD a well-functioning market economy should enjoy a diverse range of economic activities, equality of opportunity and convergence of incomes.

    These outcomes had not yet been achieved by and progress in establishing well-functioning market economies had stalled since the s. On the EBRD's measure of transition indicators the transition economies had become "stuck in transition". Price liberalization, small-scale privatization and the opening-up of trade and foreign exchange markets were mostly complete by the end of the s.

    However economic reform had slowed in areas such governance, enterprise restructuring and competition policy, which remained substantially below the standard of other developed market economies. Inequality of opportunity was higher in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia than in some other developed economies in Western Europe except France, where inequality of opportunity was relatively high.

    The highest inequality of opportunity was found in the Balkans and Central Asia. In terms of legal regulations and access to education and health services, inequality of opportunity related to gender was low in Europe and Central Asia but medium to high in respect of labour practices, employment and entrepreneurship and in access to finance.

    In Central Asia women also experienced significant lack of access to health services, as was the case in Arab countries.

    Transition economy

    Over the decade to , the transition economies had closed some of the gap in income per person with the average for the European Union in purchasing power parity terms. These gains had been driven by sustained growth in productivity as obsolete capital stock was scrapped and production shifted to take advantage of the opening-up of foreign trade, price liberalization and foreign direct investment.

    Current reforms must be focussed more on the regulatory realm. Given the challenges of reforming corporate governance in the largest SOEs, implementing specific laws governing their operations and their relationships with government agencies are an option. This would help increase the transparency of their business activities in domestic as well as global markets. Chinese SOEs continue to play a significant role in several strategic industries that include new sources of energy, telecommunications and information technology, automation, transport equipment such as automobiles, aviation, shipbuilding and high-speed railways , new materials, space technologies, construction materials and infrastructure development.

    In , the Chinese government announced new measures for market opening in the forms of further tariff reduction and market entry. These reforms will accelerate the pace of SOE reform as the sector faces increased pressure from competition to make necessary adjustments. East Asia Forum welcomes comments, both for adding depth to analysis and for bringing up important new issues.